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Writing 101 – Tenses


(c) Robyn LaRue 2014

Hoo-wee! What a week we’ve had here at SarMus HQ (formally SarMus Towers, but we all know what happened there): Amanda has given us the secrets of horror; Robyn has guided us to publishing resources, not to mention her version of The Little Author That Could; and, Michelle has shown us how to play with dots

But Ladies and Gentlemen, I come to you today to discuss a serious matter. I come to you today to discuss tense.

Ladies and Gentlemen, please, let’s have order.

I know that it’s a pain but we all have to do it. When we write, we first have to choose our tense. It’s supposed to be the most basic of decisions we make as writers, but our choice not only affects the way we write and our choice of words, it can affect the whole cadence of our narrative.

Written tenses

Written tense, also grammatical tense, is used to indicate time. English has three main tenses used in writing: past (before now), present (now) and future (after now). All have their uses; all have their quirks.


As the name implies, this tense deals with events that have already occurred. It is the traditional tense used in fiction, especially longer narratives and because of its heritage, it tends to be the one writers are most comfortable with. As past tense can refer to events that happened moments ago or eons, it allows a mechanism to easily move around in time. Thousands of years can pass in a simple sentence or focus can shift from the recent to the distant past without interrupting the flow of the story.

Example – Vengeance.


Present tense deals with events as they unfold to your characters and, by proxy, readers. It offers a sense of immediacy to the narrative, often creating faster paced prose than the past and future tenses. It isn’t as common in adult fiction and, as a result, some writers can have difficulty sustaining it throughout, often slipping back into the familiar past tense. Present tense best serves a first-person perspective and provides a greater focus on voice (both the characters and the authors).

Example – Crow.


Last, but not least, we come to future tense. Future tense covers events that are yet to happen be it tomorrow or in the distant future. It is the rarest tense in fiction and incredibly difficult to master. The average reader, unfamiliar with the format, can find it hard to read. It’s a tense best used for short stories and flash fiction. Future tense is perfect where the narrative calls for an air of uncertainty.

Example – Questions.

Tips when using tenses

1. Let your story dictate its own tense

Most stories know which tense they best fit; it comes naturally. Listen to them and don’t be afraid to change if the story isn’t working. Sometimes the only thing keeping a good story from being great is the wrong tense.

2. Read

When writing in a tense you don’t often use, it pays to read other works written in that tense. Not only will it give you a feel for it, it will also give you an insight into the way other authors have used it to their advantage.

3. Keep it consistent

There’s nothing harder to read than a story that switches tenses, especially one that switches in the middle of a paragraph or even a sentence.

4. Keep tense changes to breaks

Where the story calls for changes in tense, keep them at logical break points e.g. chapters and page breaks.

5. Does it flow?

The right tense will give the story the right rhythm. It will practically sing to you from the page.

6. Check, check and check again

Unfamiliar tenses are riddled with minefields. When we are caught up in drafting, it is all too easy to slip back into the more comfortable tenses. Check your work. Weed out anywhere you may have slipped back into old habits. Rest it and then check it again. I guarantee you’ll find ones you missed the first time.

For more grown up look at the use of tense and aspect, check out Michelle’s post here. Go on…you know you want to.

What’s the hardest tense you’ve ever encountered? Have you ever written in an unfamiliar tense? What were the results?

5 thoughts on “Writing 101 – Tenses

  1. I am always amazed at how often I mess this up in a 1,000 word blog post. It’s one of the reasons I set them down and wait a bit before reading them that last time. Also a reason I give them to my wife to read before pushing ‘post’. Thanks for a nice description and some useful tips.

    • The issue I find is that we often write how we speak. When I talk, I’m constantly shifting tense from past, to present, to future, and then back to past. It’s easy for your brain to treat your writing the same way. Unfortunately, the switches that make for animated anecdotes with your friends tend to make your stories and posts inconsistent and shatter the reader’s suspension of reality.

  2. As a neophyte writer, I admit that I have not even considered this point in my writing. I have been simply telling my stories as they roll off my fingertips. Looking back, I see that I too have slipped back and forth, and have also managed to use present tense once or twice which I do see adds a sense of urgency to the narrative. Thanks for bringing these fine points to light. I will certainly need to be more cognizant of them in the future 😉

    • Thanks for commenting, Dave. It’s all too easy for any writer -neophyte or seasoned pro – to slip tenses. I find that reading your work aloud helps to weed the inadvertent switches not to mention how invaluable a second set of eyes (either from beta-readers or an editor like Michelle) can be.

  3. Pingback: Change Your View | The Sarcastic Muse

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